Life Span
Regulatory Functions
Nervous System
Endocrine System
Nutritional Functions
Excretary Functions
Urinary System
Distributive Functions
Cardiovascular System
Respiratory System
Protective Functions
Reproductive Functions
Musculo-Skeletal System
Cushing's Disease
Heart Disease
Skin and Coat


1. B.N. Bonnett, A. Egenvall, P. Olson, A. Hedhammar, "Mortality in Insured Swedish Dogs: Rates and Causes of Death in Various Breeds," The Veterinary Record, Vol. 141, July 12, 1997, pp. 40-44.

2. G. Ru, B. Terracini, and L.T. Glickman, "Host Related Risk Factors for Canine Osteosarcoma," Veterinary Journal, Vol. 156, No. 1, July 1998, pp. 31-39.

3. Joanne C. Graham, D.V.M., M.S., Diplomat ACVIM (Oncology), personal communication, December 1998.

4. Ibid.

5. BioMedtrix, 80 Commerce Drive, Allendale, N.J. 07401; (201) 818-1700;

6. John C. Cargill and Susan Thorpe-Vargas, "Surgical Management of Canine Hip Dysplasia," Dog World, November 1995, pp. 20-25.

7. John C. Cargill and Susan Thorpe-Vargas, "Surgical Management of Canine Hip Dysplasia, Part II-Operations: Two Viable Options," Dog World, December 1995, pp. 22-25

8. Adequan, Animal Health Division, Luitpold Pharmaceuticals Inc., 1 Luitpold Drive, Shirley, N.Y. 11967; (800) 458-0163;

9. P.S. McNamara, S.A. Johnston, and Rory J. Todhunter, "Slow-Acting Disease-Modifying Osteoarthritis Agents," Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, Vol. 27, No. 4, July 1997, p. 863.

10. Cosequin, Nutramax Laboratories Inc., 5024 Campbell Blvd., Baltimore, Md. 21236; (800) 925-5187;

11. David S. Hungerford, "Treating Osteoarthritis with Chondroprotective Agents," Orthopedic Special Edition: A Compendium of Educational Reviews, Vol. 4, No. 1, January-April 1998.

12. R.R. Hanson, L.R. Smalley, G.K. Huff, S. White, and T.A. Hammad, "Oral Treatment with a Glucosamine-Chondroitin Sulfate Compound for Degenerative Joint Disease in Horses: 25 Cases," Equine Practice, Vol. 19, No. 9, October 1997, pp. 16-22.

13. D.S. Hulse, D. Hart, M. Slatter, and B.S. Beale, "The Effect of Cosequin in Cranial Cruciate Deficient and Reconstructed Stiffle Joints in Dogs," Proceedings, 26th Annual Surgical Forum, 33 Annual Scientific Meeting (Small Animal), American College of Veterinary Surgeons, Chicago, October 8-11, 1998.

14. L. Lippiello, A. Idouraine, P.S. McNamara, S.C. Barr, and R.M. McLaughlin, "Cartilage Stimulatory and Antiproteoloytic Activity Is Present in Sera of Dogs Treated with a Chondroprotective Agent," Canine Practice, Vol. 23, No. 6, November/December 1998, pp. 10-12.

15. U.S. Patent nos. 5,364,845 and 5,587,363.

16. Lester Mandekler, in "Forum Letters 32-8," Veterinary Forum, October 1998, p. 35, "Of the oral agents, combinations of glucosamine and chondroitin are most often used, but the bioavailability can vary greatly. Therefore, companies such as Nutramax that have research behind their products bear strong consideration."

17. Rimadyl, Pfizer; (800) 720-DOGS;

18. FDA 1987-1997 Adverse Drug Experience (ADE) Summaries:

19. links to

20. FDA 1987-1997 Adverse Drug Experience (ADE) Summaries:

21. EtoGesic, EtoGesic Information, Fort Dodge® Animal Health, 9401 Indian Creek Parkway, Suite 1500, Overland Park, Kan. 66210; (877) 269-9691.

22. J.A. Impellizeri and R.E. Lau, "14 Week Clinical Evaluation of an Oral Antioxidant as Treatment for Osteoarthritis Secondary to Canine Hip Dysplasia," Proceedings, 24th Annual Meeting, Veterinary Orthopedic Society, March 1997.

23. Pycnogenol, Kaire International, 380 Lashley, Longmont, Colo. 80501; (303) 682-0110.

24. Proanthozone, Virbac, 3200 Meacham Blvd., Fort Worth, Texas 76137; (800) 338-3659.

25. D. Bagchi, A. Garg, R.L. Krohn, M. Bagchi, M.X. Tran, and S.J. Stohs, "Oxygen Free Radical Scavenging Abilities of Vitamins C and E, and a Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract In Vitro," Research Communications in Molecular Pathology and Pharmacology, Vol. 95, No. 2, February 1997, pp. 179-189.

26. S. Uchida, H. Ohta, R. Edamatsu, M. Hiramatsu, A. Mori, G. Nonaka, I. Nishioka, M. Niwa, T. Akashi, and M. Ozaki, "Active Oxygen Free Radicals Are Scavenged by Condensed Tannins," Progress in Clinical Biological Research, Vol. 280, 1988, pp.135-138.

27. M.A. Anderson and M. Slater, "Results of a Survey of Small Animal Practitioners on the Perceived Efficacy and Safety of an Oral Nutraceutical," Scientific Presentation Abstracts, 7th Annual American College of Veterinary Surgeons Veterinary Symposium, Orlando, Fla., October 16-19, 1997.

28. Don Hulse, "Treatment Methods for Pain in the Osteoarthritic Patient," Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, Vol. 28, No. 2, March 1998, pp. 361-374.

29. John Cargill and Susan Thorpe-Vargas, "The Fattening of Our Nation's Dogs," Dog World, October 1998, pp. 18-26.

30. Linda P. Case, Daniel P. Carey, and Diane A. Hirakawa, Canine and Feline Nutrition: A Resource for Companion Animal Professionals, Mosby, St. Louis, 1995, p. 350.

31. D. Mattheeuws, R. Rottiers, J.J. Keneko, et al., "Diabetes Mellitus in Dogs: Relationship of Obesity to Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Response," American Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol. 45, 1984, pp. 98-103.

32. Association of American Feed Control Officials, Official Publication 1998. Copies may be obtained through Charles P. Frank, AAFCO Treasurer, Georgia Department of Agriculture, Plant Food, Feed and Grain Division, Capitol Square, Atlanta, Ga. 30334; (404) 656-3637.

33. Dorothy P. LaFlamme, D.V.M., Ph.D., Ralston Purina®, personal communication, December 1998.

34. Gregory A. Reinhart, Ph.D., "New Methods for Managing Canine Chronic Renal Failure," in G.A. Reinhart, Ph.D., and D.P. Carey, D.V.M., (eds.), Recent Advances in Canine and Feline Nutrition, Volume II, 1998, Iams Nutrition Symposium Proceedings, Orange Frazer Press, Wilmington, Ohio, pp. 395-404.

35. Deborah S. Greco, "It is Beginning to Look a Lot Like Cushing's," Endocrinology, in American Animal Hospital Association, Scientific Proceedings, 1997.

36. John K. Hampton and Susanne H. Hampton, Senior Years: Understanding Your Dog's Aging Process, Howell Book House, New York, 1993, p. 57.

37. Janice M. Bright, B.S.N., M.S., D.V.M., and Erick Mears, D.V.M., "Chronic Heart Disease and Its Management," Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, Vol. 27, No. 6, November 1997, pp. 1305-1329.

38. Pedigree DentaBone, Pet Care Consumer Services, P.O. Box 58853, Vernon, Calif. 90058; (800) 525-5273.

39. Allerderm and Allergroom, Virbac, 3200 Meacham Blvd., Fort Worth, Texas 76137; (800) 338-3659.

40. Hexadene, Pyoben, Sebolux, Allerseb-T, Virbac, 3200 Meacham Blvd., Fort Worth, Texas 76137; (800) 338-3659.

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